How is the 88 Standard Scale constructed?

The 88 standard or norm scale was established at a congress in Buffalo/USA in 1908. Gradually, starting in 1910, most manufacturers built the 88 scale. And this despite the fact that there are very few pieces of music that make use of the 88 keys of a piano - and even after 1910 many upright and grand pianos still had only 85 keys. During the transitional period, most manufacturers offered systems with two note roll scales ('double scale').

Most 88s pianolas then already have the control information for automatic melody emphasis (soloist, melodist, themodist, etc.) on the note rolls and many also have automatic operation of the right forte pedal. There are also holes or levers for track control. So there are more holes for the notes in addition to the 88 holes for the notes.

The assignment of the holes (counted from the left) in the standard 88 scale is

Holes 1-2 as well as 94-95 (one above the other): Track control

Hole 3: Forte pedal (right pedal)

Hole 4: Themodist (melody emphasis) Bass

Hole 5-92: 88 notes from A1 to c5 

Hole 93: Themodist treble

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